It is widely said that globalisation is the process of the world becoming “smaller”. What globalisation actually is, is the integration of countries’ cultures, lifestyles and ideas. In the late 19th century, large-scale globalisation was occurring as the countries became more connected. Connectivity further increased throughout the years as education improved and people were doing more skilled jobs, therefore developing more advance technology such as; telecommunication, transport, social media and radio & television. Western countries such as the USA developed rapidly and as a result, they were able to produce goods and services that many countries could not, such as cars (Chevrolet) and banking services (Wells Fargo). This then gave opportunities for them to set up in other countries as their products were highly demanded, therefore resulting in globalisation as American brands could be found in other countries e.g. the UAE.
Globalisation however, is quite controversial as there are many advantages and disadvantages that are attached to it. One major advantage is that it results in lowering average costs, as companies and firms such as HSBC set up their call centers in LEDCs like India where the average wage is $250 a month compared to $3000 in the UK. Globalisation also helps people in LEDCs get better jobs compared to the professions the would usually be occupied with, as in most LEDCs, people work in the primary sector doing farming or mining jobs, where the pay is extremely low and tertiary jobs like working in hotels and call centres are a lot less physically demanding and pay better, which results in their quality of life improving as the government imposes taxes on their salaries to improve infrastructure and education to further develop the country. Cultural diversity also occurs as a result of globalisation, as people are exposed to different cultures via social media or tourists travelling around. This can result in people becoming more tolerant as they are more culturally aware and possibly less problems such as racism is likely to occur.
Globalisation is also controversial as many argue that it is unethical because only MEDCs are benefitting from it. Nike has set up sweatshops in Indonesia where the average wage is around $2.30 a day, and Nike shoes cost around $120 or more. Anti globalisation organisations protest claiming that the workers are being exploited, however, this statement could be debated as many claim that these factories pay workers more than what they would generally earn. Another disadvantage is that some countries are exploiting resources and not making any major progress such as Brazil, where the Amazon Rainforest has been exploited and over 600,000km squared of forest has been deforested; exported as wood for furniture, cattle ranching to export the cattle and mining for other raw materials such as coal and iron. The value of raw materials is not high and Brazil does not get enough money back to further develop their country, but make the state of the country worsens as more pollution occurs. Moreover, it is said that globalisation can cause cultural diffusion as people from foreign countries migrate to live in different countries and could then impose their own culture and lifestyles on to the local people therefore making them forget their own cultures, resulting in less diversity.
Overall, globalisation does bear several advantages and disadvantages; although it can possibly result in many social and economic benefits, it can risk damaging the environment to result in creating a plethora of greenhouse gases that will eventually harm our lives. Some political advantages could be associated with globalisation, as people can become more understanding worldwide and it could reduce hate within different ethnicities of people and this could possibly stop wars and conflict.
Globalisation is very beneficial to improve standards of living, but I believe in order for it to be very beneficial, some laws have to be placed by the United Nations or any international organisation to reduce the damage to the planet for example Kyoto Protocol (1992) that limits the amount of greenhouse gases that can be emitted from a country.